103-124 MYA, i.e. I expect the arthropod taxonomists to offer more detailed comments about the taxonomy etc. We have also attended to numerous minor errors that reviewer 3 highlighted. Specifically, Figure 2—figure supplement 2 seems to show as unique apomorphies for Sphecomyrmister (I think-the character state numbers are blurry) the states 12-2, 112-2, 113-2, and 114-2; this is puzzling since the (new) genus obviously was not included in Caterino and Tishechkin, 2015's data but the characters were. Several major radiations of myrmecophiles are known, each containing hundreds of symbiotic species, including the lycaenid butterflies (Pierce et al., 2002), eucharitid wasps (Murray et al., 2013), paussine ground beetles (Moore and Robertson, 2014) and multiple lineages of rove beetles (Kistner, 1979; Kistner, 1982; Parker, 2016; Parker and Grimaldi, 2014; Seevers, 1965; Maruyama and Parker, 2017). Second, the authors did not include representatives of any of the three largest and most heavily sampled genera in Caterino and Tishechkin, 2015's paper (Phelister, Operclipygus, and Baconia), and for some reason all but one of the Exosternini genera included are Old World rather than New World taxa (a point not mentioned), even though the focus of Caterino and Tishechkin, 2015's paper was Neotropical Exosternini and nearly all Haeteriinae are Neotropical. A consensus tree (Figure 2B; L = 1604, CI = 25, RI = 42) was obtained from four shortest-length trees (L = 1483, CI = 28, RI = 48) and the branch support was also calculated using 10,000 bootstrap replicates. Once adults, the beetles can disperse to other food sources by flying (Haines and Rees 1989). How many candles are on a Hanukkah menorah? We are grateful to Alexey K Tishechkin (USDA), Michael S Caterino (Clemson University) and Alfred Newton (Field Museum) for their helpful advice on the placement of the fossil and to Margaret K Thayer (Field Museum) for a very thorough review of the paper. What does contingent mean in real estate? We have briefly summarized your reviews, and our responses to them: Reviewer 1 recognizes the novelty and valuable contribution of our paper. Reviewer 1 notes that due to the incompleteness of the fossil record, it is “difficult to determine precisely when such complex social behaviours first originated”. Clypeus bordered by deep epistomal depressions to receive antennal scapes in repose (Figure 1—figure supplement 1B). The specific LSIDs for new nomenclatural acts: Genus: urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:8125C3AB-A6C3-41AF-A9D7-0B67BBA2ACAD, Species: urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:56DE873C-0163–4 F94-8D09-196F20B84C57. Prior to our paper, definitive myrmecophiles were unknown from the entire Cretaceous, let alone from the same deposit as the earliest-known ants. [Editors’ note: a previous version of this study was rejected after peer review, but the authors submitted for reconsideration. The Mkv model of character evolution was used with a gamma distribution, and two MCMC were executed with four chains for 100 million generations. Orange bars extend back from the Recent to the age of the earliest-known fossil; dotted lines extend back to molecularly-inferred origins of crown groups. Lateral margins crenulate, each projection bearing weakly squamiform setae. The name refers to the likely symbiotic habits of the fossil taxon inside early ant colonies. Such a scenario entails that haeteriines may not have originated with the modern ant groups that host them today; instead myrmecophily evolved first in stem-group ant colonies, with the beetles later switching to crown-group ants. The fossil beetle is placed in Histeridae based on its possession of the following characters (Kovarik and Caterino, 2000): (i) a broad and compact body shape (Figure 1A,C); (ii) striate elytra that expose the two posterior abdominal tergites (Figure 1A); ii) five visible abdominal sternites (Figure 1C); (iv) short legs with broad, flattened tibiae (Figure 1C,E); (v) antenna short and geniculate with compact, 3-segmented club (Figure 1—figure supplement 1B); (vi) antenna retracting into cavity underneath the pronotum (Figure 1—figure supplement 1B); (vii) tarsal formula 5-5-5. Reviewer 2 agrees that our fossil discovery is “of particular interest, because it coincides with early ant evolution” but questions whether stem-group ants were likely hosts. The environments in which many hister beetles species are known to live. This published work and the nomenclatural acts it contains have been registered in ZooBank, the online registration system for the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Zhou et al. We report the discovery of a crown-group haeteriine in Upper Cretaceous Burmese amber, revealing that the clown beetle-ant interaction has an exceptionally deep evolutionary history. My only comments for the authors to consider are minor ones: Results and Discussion: 'mid-Cretaceous' as anon formal date is here confusing as the age of the deposit make sit Cenomanian (technically "Upper Cretaceous"), and absolute age place sits in the top 1/3 of the Cretaceous age span, so Upper cretaceous is more preferable than using' mid-Cretaceous'. 08, http://sciaroidea.info/node/44495. have now discovered an ancient beetle, perfectly preserved in the same amber deposits, that may have also lived within the colonies of those earliest-known ants. Species with such adaptations are found among the scarabs, ground beetles, and clown beetles (family Histeridae). If you allow for host switching anyway, then the fact that extant hosts of Haeteriinae are of younger age than the fossil beetle (Figure 3) also doesn't strengthen the argument that they would have originally come from stem-group ants. Because they have Super Powers. As mentioned above, in the revised analysis we have included at least one species (type species of the genus if available) of the genera of Exosternini belonging to the sister clades of Haeteriinae, and added several species of the variable genera Operclipygus and Yarmister, as well as New and Old World representatives of Hypobletus, and one species of Baconia examined by Caterino and Tishechkin, 2015. Danielle Parrott 643 views. Add to favourite. Using a mathematical model, we show that the temporal asynchrony between within-host virus exponential growth and antibody-mediated selection could limit within-host antigenic evolution. Using a phylogenetic approach to characterize the oxpecker-ungulate relationship, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1558-5646.2010.01212.x, Specialized myrmecophily at the ecological dawn of modern ants, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2014.08.068, The ecology and evolution of ant association in the Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera), https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ento.47.091201.145257, Posterior summarization in Bayesian phylogenetics using tracer 1.7, MrBayes 3.2: efficient Bayesian phylogenetic inference and model choice across a large model space, Molecular phylogenetics of ponerine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae), https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3647.2.1, The systematics, evolution and zoogeography of staphylinid beetles associated with army ants (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae), Age constraint on Burmese amber based on U–Pb dating of zircons, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cretres.2012.03.014, Why do birds participate in mixed-species foraging flocks? Beyond Promyrmister’s phylogenetic position within the Haeteriinae clade, the fossil’s anatomy implies a chemical strategy to become accepted or at least tolerated inside colonies (hypothetical reconstruction in Figure 2F), akin to modern haeteriine species that have so far been examined (Akre, 1968; Lenoir et al., 2012; Seyfried, 1928). We cannot, however, rule out an alternative scenario, that an as-yet undiscovered diversity of crown-group ants were, in fact, present in the Burmese palaeofauna, and it was these that selected for the early evolution of myrmecophily. (B) Right lateral habitus with flight wing indicated. They also suggest new avenues for improving influenza control. Mesoventrite between mesocoxae very broad, about 1/3 of body width at the same position (Figure 1C); anterior margin projecting medially fitting into prosternal process (Figure 1F); Margin between metaventrite and visible abdominal ventrite one shallowly grooved. Complex interspecies relationships are widespread among metazoans, but the evolutionary history of these lifestyles is poorly understood. Since all known extant Haeteriinae are obligate myrmecophiles, the morphology-based placement supports the inference that Sphecomyrmister was also a myrmecophile, although in a few places the authors tend toward presenting this as a fact rather than an inference. Although the analysis itself was carried out in reasonable fashion, simple adoption of a data matrix from a paper (Caterino and Tishechkin 2015) that focused on a different part of the Histeridae (Histerinae: Exosternini) is problematic. We have kept Figure 3, but modified it with molecular dates from Borowiec et al., 2017, and now use this figure to explain the two alternative hypotheses. This is called complete metamorphosis. Stag Beetle / Fliegender Hirschkäfer! Yes. The diversity of such organisms is impressive, with ~10,000 species hypothesized to target or profit from ant nests alone (Elmes, 1996). Please consider my comments above about the 'lagerstate effect' -such well-preserved fossils can suggest biases in the fossil record, so estimating dates of origin of social behaviour may rest upon a combination of molecular dates of when each group might first evolved calibrated with the dated fossil record. What are some samples of opening remarks for a Christmas party? Copyright © 2020 Multiply Media, LLC. Reviewer 3 recognizes the novelty and valuable contribution of our paper. 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