John Constable, 'Study of an Elm Tree' [1821], John Constable, 'The Cornfield' [1826] (Ulmus × hollandica[1]), Constable, 'Salisbury Cathedral from the Bishop's Garden' [1823 version] (Ulmus × hollandica[1]), Jacob George Strutt, Elms at Mongewell, Oxfordshire [1830] (Ulmus minor 'Atinia'), Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller, 'Alte Ulmen im Prater' (:Old Elms in Prater) [1831], James Duffield Harding, 'The Great Exhibition of 1851' (Ulmus minor 'Atinia', centre), Arthur Hughes, 'Home from Sea' [1862] (Ulmus minor 'Atinia'[1]), Ford Madox Brown, 'Work' [1863] (Ulmus minor 'Atinia'[1]), [unknown artist] The American Elm [1879] (Ulmus americana), Johannes Karel Christiaan Klinkenberg, 'Amsterdam' [1890] (Ulmus x hollandica ‘Belgica' ), Frederick Childe Hassam, 'Champs Elysées, Paris' [1889] (Ulmus × hollandica, 'orme femelle'[1]), Frederick Childe Hassam, 'Washington Arch, Spring' [1893] (Ulmus americana), Frederick Childe Hassam, 'Church at Old Lyme' [1905] (Ulmus americana), Frederick Childe Hassam, 'The East Hampton Elms in May' [1920] (Ulmus americana), George Inness, 'Old Elm at Medfield' (Ulmus americana), Unknown artist, 'The Cam near Trinity College, Cambridge', England (Ulmus atinia). However, in recent decades, most mature elms of European or North American origin have died from Dutch elm disease, caused by a microfungus dispersed by bark beetles. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. Pinon J., Husson C., Collin E. (2005). In the first Idyll of Theocritus (3rd century BC), for example, the goat-herd invites the shepherd to sit "here beneath the elm" ("δεῦρ' ὑπὸ τὰν πτελέαν") and sing. [44], The density of elm wood varies between species, but averages around 560 kg per cubic metre. New horizons in Dutch elm disease control. [32], However, some of these cultivars, notably those with the Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila) in their ancestry, lack the forms for which the iconic American Elm and English Elm were prized. Dutch Elm Disease is a fungus which is spread by the elm bark beetle The name Ulmus is the Latin name for these trees, while the English "elm" and many other European names are either cognate with or derived from it.[7]. [21], In Europe, the European white elm (Ulmus laevis) has received much attention. In much of England, it was the English elm which later came to dominate the horticultural landscape. After a number of false dawns in the 1970s, this approach has produced a range of reliable hybrid cultivars now commercially available in North America and Europe. Its large, dark green foliage forms a dense canopy turning yellow in fall. From about 1850 to 1920, the most prized small ornamental elm in parks and gardens was the Camperdown elm (Ulmus glabra 'Camperdownii'), a contorted weeping cultivar of the Wych Elm grafted on to a non-weeping elm trunk to give a wide, spreading and weeping fountain shape in large garden spaces. [45], Elm wood is also resistant to decay when permanently wet, and hollowed trunks were widely used as water pipes during the medieval period in Europe. novo-ulmi, caused similar devastation in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Dutch elm disease history and diagnosis. ", Pajares, J. Since circa 1990 the elm has enjoyed a renaissance through the successful development in North America and Europe of cultivars highly resistant to DED. In North America, the species most commonly planted was the American elm (Ulmus americana), which had unique properties that made it ideal for such use: rapid growth, adaptation to a broad range of climates and soils, strong wood, resistance to wind damage, and vase-like growth habit requiring minimal pruning. Tolerant of clay, loam or sand, acid or alkaline soil, it is no wonder this tree was so popular in the early part of the century until Dutch elm disease (DED) began its march across the North America continent. The two subspecies have now hybridized in Europe where their ranges have overlapped. [10] The hypothesis that O. novo-ulmi arose from a hybrid of the original O. ulmi and another strain endemic to the Himalaya, Ophiostoma himal-ulmi is now discredited. In Germanic and Scandinavian mythology the first woman, Embla, was fashioned from an elm,[71] Aside from references literal and metaphorical to the elm and vine theme, the tree occurs in Latin literature in the Elm of Dreams in the Aeneid. & Whittemore, A. An Elm Tree and Three Sisters by Norma Sommerdorf is a children's book about three young sisters that plant a small elm tree in their backyard. The first written references to elm occur in the Linear B lists of military equipment at Knossos in the Mycenaean Period. The oldest of these elms were planted during the 1860s by Frederick Law Olmsted, making them among the oldest stands of American elms in the world. [40], While the stand is still vulnerable to DED, in the 1980s the Central Park Conservancy undertook aggressive countermeasures such as heavy pruning and removal of extensively diseased trees. Jean-Baptiste Lesueur, 1790, Balcony with elm symbol, overlooking the 'Crossroads of the Elm', Place Saint-Gervais, Paris[81], President George W. Bush and Laura Bush planting a disease-resistant 'Jefferson' Elm before the White House, 2006, Elm suckers spreading before the abandoned summer royal palace in Tatoi, Greece, Μarch 2008, The name of what is now the London neighborhood of Seven Sisters is derived from seven elms which stood there at the time when it was a rural area, planted a circle with a walnut tree at their centre, and traceable on maps back to 1619. [8] The samarae are very light, those of British elms numbering around 50,000 to the pound (454 g). They were particularly popular as a street tree in avenue plantings in towns and cities, creating high-tunnelled effects. A part of New York City's urban ecology, the elms improve air and water quality, reduce erosion and flooding, and decrease air temperatures during warm days. Efforts to develop DED-resistant cultivars began in the Netherlands in 1928 and continued, uninterrupted by World War II, until 1992. 'Bladder' leaf-galls on a narrow-leaved elm (aphid Eriosoma lanuginosum), Italy. [68] When the Sibyl of Cumae leads Aeneas down to the Underworld, one of the sights is the Stygian Elm: Virgil refers to a Roman superstition (vulgo) that elms were trees of ill-omen because their fruit seemed to be of no value. Populations in the United States have been decimated by Dutch elm … Dutch elm disease (DED) devastated elms throughout Europe and much of North America in the second half of the 20th century. [1] After pollination, seeds of spring-flowering elms ripen and fall at the start of summer (June); they remain viable for only a few days. The elm tree is also referenced in children's literature. When the British, knowing that the tree was a symbol of rebellion, felled it in 1775, the Americans took to widespread 'Liberty Elm' planting, and sewed elm symbols on to their revolutionary flags. The larvae feed only on elm. Sadly, the American elm (Ulmus americana) can no longer be recommended because it is vulnerable to a devastating pathogen called Dutch elm disease. [69] It has been noted[70] that two elm-motifs have arisen from classical literature: (1) the 'Paradisal Elm' motif, arising from pastoral idylls and the elm-and-vine theme, and (2) the 'Elm and Death' motif, perhaps arising from Homer's commemorative elms and Virgil's Stygian Elm. Susceptibility of native French elm clones to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. The tree was said to be still standing in the 1860s. In England after the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the final victory of parliamentarians over monarchists, and the arrival from Holland, with William III and Mary II, of the 'Dutch Elm' hybrid, planting of this cultivar became a fashion among enthusiasts of the new political order.[76][77]. [8] Consequently, the total number of named cultivars, ancient and modern, now exceeds 300, although many of the older clones, possibly over 120, have been lost to cultivation. The first, less aggressive strain of the disease fungus, Ophiostoma ulmi, arrived in Europe from Asia in 1910, and was accidentally introduced to North America in 1928. The Nymphs also planted elms on the tomb in the Thracian Chersonese of "great-hearted Protesilaus" ("μεγάθυμου Πρωτεσιλάου"), the first Greek to fall in the Trojan War. Native species may be propagated by seed. Tolerant of urban conditions and highly resistant to Dutch elm disease, Princeton Elm is an excellent component of street tree plantings or for sites with poor soil conditions. The transplanting of root-suckers remains the easiest and commonest propagation-method for European field elm and its hybrids. In south-eastern Australia and New Zealand, large numbers of English and Dutch elms, as well as other species and cultivars, were planted as ornamentals following their introduction in the 19th century, while in northern Japan Japanese Elm (Ulmus davidiana var. This very aggressive disease, with no known cure, occurs in the Eastern United States, southern Ontarioin Canada, and Europe. Ulmus americana, American Elm. These burrow horizontally into the trunk then vertically down. Little-known elms from China: landscape tree possibilities. In: 'Salt-tolerant landscape plants', countyofdane.com/myfairlakes/A3877.pdf, dutchtrig.com/the_netherlands/the_hague.html. It is caused by phytoplasmaswhich infect the phloem (inner bark) of the tree. [84][85] In an ironic development, feral elms have spread and invaded the grounds of the abandoned Greek royal summer palace at Tatoi in Attica. Elms outside their natural range, such as Ulmus procera in England, and elms unable to pollinate because pollen-sources are genetically identical, are sterile and are propagated by vegetative reproduction. Mature trees reach 80 to 100+ feet in height with some as tall as 125 feet. These elms grew to be the tallest in the known world; but when their topmost branches saw far off the ruins of Troy, they immediately withered, so great still was the bitterness of the hero buried below, who had been loved by Laodamia and slain by Hector. [13] This very aggressive disease, with no known cure, occurs in the Eastern United States, southern Ontario in Canada, and Europe. [43] Hesiod says that ploughs in Ancient Greece were also made partly of elm. However, the susceptibility of the cultivar 'Lobel', used as a control in Italian trials, to elm yellows has now (2014) raised a question mark over all the Dutch clones. Beside elms Theocritus places "the sacred water" ("το ἱερὸν ὕδωρ") of the Springs of the Nymphs and the shrines to the nymphs.[67]. [80] By contrast, a famous Parisian elm associated with the Ancien Régime, L'Orme de Saint-Gervais in the Place St-Gervais, was felled by the revolutionaries; church authorities planted a new elm in its place in 1846, and an early 20th-century elm stands on the site today. The American Elm is botanically called Ulmus americana. Moreover, during the 19th and early 20th centuries many species and cultivars were also planted as ornamental street, garden, and park trees in Europe, North America, and parts of the Southern Hemisphere, notably Australasia. (2005). A bottom heat of 18 degrees[92] and humid conditions are maintained for hard- and softwood cuttings. (2019). It is now believed that it was this subspecies which was introduced to North America and, like O. ulmi, probably originated in Asia. "Elms" redirects here. The beetle was accidentally introduced to North America from Europe. Breeding Elms for Resistance to Dutch Elm Disease. Its mid green leaves are elliptic with serrated margins, and turns yellow before they fall in … American elm lining a suburban street. I can send you leaf and tree photos. These proud, attractive trees were a favorite in cities and suburbs across the U.S. and were found throughout forests in their native range. Martín-Benito D., Concepción García-Vallejo M., Pajares J. The influence of Dutch elm disease on bird population trends. Woodland trees in North America are not quite as susceptible to the disease because they usually lack the root-grafting of the urban elms and are somewhat more isolated from each other. In Italy, the Istituto per la Protezione delle Piante is (2012) in the process of releasing to commerce very fast-growing elm cultivars, able to increase in height by more than 2 m (6 ft) per annum. Click on images of American Elm to enlarge. (2002). Enthusiasm for the newer clones often remains low owing to the poor performance of earlier, supposedly disease-resistant Dutch trees released in the 1960s and 1970s. The elm occurs frequently in English literature, one of the best known instances being in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, where Titania, Queen of the Fairies, addresses her beloved Nick Bottom using an elm-simile. The Chinese or Lacebark elm is also more resistant to the disease. The leaves are oblong and the flowers are brownish-purple. Egg of Satyrium w-album near flower-bud of an elm. Slippery elm leaves are scabrous even on mature trees, lateral leaf veins typically fork near the leaf margin, the bark is brown to reddish, lateral buds are reddish, blunt, scales pubescent, twigs are roughened by persistent bases of hairs, and the samara is suborbicular and margin not ciliate. American Elm should be grown in full sun on well-drained, rich soil but it adapts to a wide variety of soils. Limited gene flow from O. ulmi to O. novo-ulmi was probably responsible for the creation of the North American subspecies O. novo-ulmi subsp. However, the disease had a much greater and long-lasting impact in North America, owing to the greater susceptibility of the American elm, Ulmus americana, which masked the emergence of the second, far more virulent strain of the disease Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. Elms are loved for their graceful, stately shape, with branches like spreading fountains, and their green leaves that turn gold in fall. For 'specimen' urban elms, grafting to wych-elm root-stock may be used to eliminate suckering or to ensure stronger root-growth. According to the Fact Sheet on American Elm - USDA Forest Service ", Once a very popular and long-lived (300+ years) shade and street tree, American Elm suffered a dramatic decline with the introduction of Dutch elm disease, a fungus spread by a bark beetle. The disease affects both wild-growing and cultivated trees. The native range of the American elm. The American Elm, is a disease resistant elm tree that can grow to heights of 100 feet or more, with a trunk averaging around 4 feet in diameter. Elm-bark beetle Scolytus multistriatus (size: 2–3 mm), a vector for Dutch Elm Disease. Some of the latter, however, were by today's standards inadequately described or illustrated before the pandemic, and it is possible that a number survive, or have regenerated, unrecognised. Younger American elms that have been planted in Central Park since the outbreak are of the DED-resistant 'Princeton' and 'Valley Forge' cultivars. Slow-germinating American Elm will remain dormant until the second season. [45], The Romans, and more recently the Italians, used to plant elms in vineyards as supports for vines. From the 18th century to the early 20th century, elms, whether species, hybrids or cultivars, were among the most widely planted ornamental trees in both Europe and North America. DED is caused by a micro-fungus transmitted by two species of Scolytus elm-bark beetle which act as vectors. There are two examples of pteleogenesis (:birth from elms) in world myths. Scolytus multistriatus 'galleries' under elm-bark. 'Pouch' leaf-galls on a wych elm (aphid Tetraneura ulmi), Germany. For the racing series, see, Genus of flowering, deciduous tree in the family Ulmaceae, Development of trees resistant to Dutch elm disease, Fu, L., Xin, Y. American elm is a vase-shaped, medium to large, deciduous tree that typically grows to 60-80’ tall with a broad-rounded crown. In 1997, a European Union elm project was initiated, its aim to coordinate the conservation of all the elm genetic resources of the member states and, among other things, to assess their resistance to Dutch elm disease. [51], Elm bark, cut into strips and boiled, sustained much of the rural population of Norway during the great famine of 1812. Decimated by Dutch elm disease in the 1950s, the once-widespread American elm whithered and died throughout its range across eastern North America. Accordingly, over 300 clones were selected and propagated for testing.[54][55][56]. Should you find or know where to find one of these rare American Elms, please record the location of the tree, its DBH at 4.5 feet above the ground and submit this information to the survivor elm website. Some individual elms reached great size and age. The limb structure resembles the elms I saw as a child in the 50s in Iosco County, MI. In both instances the beetles cause far more damage in North America owing to the absence of the predators present in their native lands. This tolerance made elms reliable both as shelterbelt trees exposed to sea wind, in particular along the coastlines of southern and western Britain[36][37] and in the Low Countries, and as trees for coastal towns and cities.[38]. The practice continues today in the Himalaya, where it contributes to serious deforestation. Moreover, several exported to northwestern Europe have proven unsuited to the maritime climate conditions there, notably because of their intolerance of anoxic conditions resulting from ponding on poorly drained soils in winter. The bark is ashy gray with flat-topped ridges separated by diamond-shaped fissures. Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees comprising the flowering plant genus Ulmus in the plant family Ulmaceae. The NPS combated the disease's local insect vector, the smaller European elm bark beetle (Scolytus multistriatus), by trapping and by spraying with insecticides. American Elm (Ulmus americana) American Elm is a common large tree of bottomland forests. [5] A large number of synonyms have accumulated over the last three centuries; their currently accepted names can be found in the list List of elm Synonyms and Accepted Names. The devastation caused by the Second World War, and the demise in 1944 of the huge Späth nursery in Berlin, only accelerated the process. Research in the United States has concentrated on the American elm (Ulmus americana), resulting in the release of DED-resistant clones, notably the cultivars 'Valley Forge' and 'Jefferson'. Once a common shade tree, the American elm has lost popularity due to its susceptibility to Dutch elm disease. Xanthogaleruca luteola: caterpillar on elm-leaf, Germany. The disease affects all species of elm native to North America and Europe, but many Asiatic species have evolved anti-fungal genes and are resistant. [46] Ovid in his Amores characterizes the elm as "loving the vine": ulmus amat vitem, vitis non deserit ulmum (:the elm loves the vine, the vine does not desert the elm),[47] and the ancients spoke of the "marriage" between elm and vine. However this resistance to decay in water does not extend to ground contact. These proud, attractive trees were a favorite in cities and suburbs across the U.S. and were found throughout forests in their native range. The American elm is an extremely hardy tree that can withstand winter temperatures as low as −42 °C (−44 °F). Elm. How to Grow Elm Trees: Elm trees grow best in rich, well-drained soil and full sun. Bacterial infection Erwinia carotovora of elm sap, which causes 'slime flux' ('wetwood') and staining of the trunk (here on a Camperdown Elm). [89] Seeds from autumn-flowering elms ripen in the Fall and germinate in the spring. One of the earliest of ornamental elms was the ball-headed graft narvan elm, Ulmus minor 'Umbraculifera', cultivated from time immemorial in Persia as a shade tree and widely planted in cities through much of south-west and central Asia. Known as “survivor elms”, researchers are hoping that these trees will be the driving force behind a new, disease-resistant version of the American elm tree population. In Australia, introduced elm trees are sometimes used as foodplants by the larvae of hepialid moths of the genus Aenetus. White-letter Hairstreak Satyrium w-album, on Lutece, Sweden. All states have reported the disease, except those in the … Its treetop is equal to the mature red oak next to it. Following the fungal infection spread by elm bark beetles, the American elm tree population quickly faltered and was nearly wiped out. Princeton Elm is an American Elm selected for its vigorous, upright symmetrical habit. It is caused by phytoplasmas which infect the phloem (inner bark) of the tree. Ulmaceae, in Wu, Z. 'Pouch' leaf-gall on elm leaf (aphid Tetraneura ulmi), Netherlands. Ulmus wallichiana (Ulmaceae). while in Japanese mythology Kamuy Fuchi, the chief goddess of the Ainu people, "was born from an elm impregnated by the Possessor of the Heavens".[72]. Elm-leaf damage caused by Xanthogaleruca luteola, Germany. [20] In 2007, AE Newhouse and F Schrodt of the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry in Syracuse reported that young transgenic American elm trees had shown reduced DED symptoms and normal mycorrhizal colonization. water elm, white elm. In nature, it can be found in swamps, bottomland forests, moist slopes, and in areas with especially nutrient-rich soils. Mittempergher, L., (2000). Brasier, C. M. & Mehotra, M. D. (1995). The tree likes sun at the location and the soil should be alluvial soils. Genotype × environment interaction and growth stability of several elm clones resistant to Dutch elm disease. [50], As fossil fuel resources diminish, increasing attention is being paid to trees as sources of energy. As part of the sub-order urticalean rosids they are distant cousins of cannabis, hops, and nettles. The tree responds by producing tyloses, effectively blocking the flow from roots to leaves. japonica) was widely planted as a street tree. Much work has also been done into the selection of disease-resistant Asiatic species and cultivars. Many artists have admired elms for the ease and grace of their branching and foliage, and have painted them with sensitivity. By 1989, it was estimated that over 75 percent of the American elm population had been lost. Elm wood is valued for its interlocking grain, and consequent resistance to splitting, with significant uses in wagon wheel hubs, chair seats and coffins. Elm Tree Bark, Photo of American Elm Trunk, Close up Identification Photo of Elm Wood, Elm Trees Bark. (2001), 'and all about were elm-trees planted by nymphs of the mountain, daughters of Zeus that beareth the aegis. Osborne, P. (1983). Meanwhile, in Europe, American and European cultivars are being assessed in field trials started in 2000 by the UK charity Butterfly Conservation.[34]. [14] Infection and death of the phloem effectively girdles the tree and stops the flow of water and nutrients. Elms are components of many kinds of natural forests. The American elm is highly susceptible to DED and elm yellows. Ironically, it was unlawful to import boards into the United States but perfectly legal to bring in logs containing the bark, fungus disease and European elm bark beetle that was the culprit. Several of the chariots are of elm (" πτε-ρε-ϝα ", pte-re-wa), and the lists twice mention wheels of elmwood. Also in the Iliad, when the River Scamander, indignant at the sight of so many corpses in his water, overflows and threatens to drown Achilles, the latter grasps a branch of a great elm in an attempt to save himself ("ὁ δὲ πτελέην ἕλε χερσὶν εὐφυέα μεγάλην".[61]. [93], Seedling of wych elm Ulmus glabra (photograph: Mihailo Grbić), Root-suckers spreading from field elm Ulmus minor, Root cuttings of Ulmus 'Dodoens' (photograph: Mihailo Grbić), Rooted hardwood elm-cutting (photograph: Mihailo Grbić), Rooting of softwood elm-cuttings under mist-propagation system (photograph: Mihailo Grbić), Mutant variegated Smooth-leafed Elm graft (photograph: Mihailo Grbić), Air layering of U. pumila (photograph: Mihailo Grbić), In vitro propagation of Ulmus chenmoui by bud meristem (photograph: Mihailo Grbić). Elm-leaf beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola, which causes serious damage to elm foliage. Leaves are typically 4 to 6 inches long with feather-like veins, double serrate margins and an oblique base (Figure 13). The elm tree can grow to great height, often with a forked trunk creating a vase profile. This belle époque lasted until the First World War, when as a consequence of hostilities, notably in Germany whence at least 40 cultivars originated, and of the outbreak at about the same time of the early strain of Dutch elm disease, Ophiostoma ulmi, the elm began its slide into horticultural decline. Many references to elm in European literature from the Renaissance onwards fit into one or other of these categories. nov., a new species of Dutch elm disease fungus endemic to the Himalayas. [33], A number of highly resistant Ulmus cultivars has been released since 2000 by the Institute of Plant Protection in Florence, most commonly featuring crosses of the Dutch cultivar 'Plantijn' with the Siberian Elm to produce resistant trees better adapted to the Mediterranean climate. When Eetion, father of Andromache, is killed by Achilles during the Trojan War, the Mountain Nymphs plant elms on his tomb ("περί δὲ πτελέας ἐφύτευσαν νύμφαι ὀρεστιάδες, κoῦραι Διὸς αἰγιόχoιo"). In partnership with the U.S. Forest Service, state natural resource agencies throughout the Midwest have come together to bring back the American elm tree through the collection of branch samples. The disease is caused by a fungus that infects the trees and whose spores are spread by bark beetles. Other articles where American elm is discussed: elm: Major species: The American elm (Ulmus americana), of eastern North America, may grow 24 to 30 metres (about 80 to 100 feet) tall. These samples will be used to create a seed orchard of genetically diverse. [17] Similar programmes were initiated in North America (1937), Italy (1978), and Spain (1986). What have we learned from 100 years of Dutch Elm Disease? ", Santini A., Fagnani A., Ferrini F., Mittempergher L., Brunetti M., Crivellaro A., Macchioni N., ". The seeds are particularly nutritious, containing 45% crude protein, and less than 7% fibre by dry mass.[52]. [22] However this possibility has not been conclusively proven. Since the Siberian Elm is drought-tolerant, in dry countries new varieties of elm are often root-grafted on this species. While this elm has little innate resistance to Dutch elm disease, it is not favoured by the vector bark beetles and thus only becomes colonized and infected when there are no other choices, a rare situation in western Europe. & Raven, P. (eds). Decimated by Dutch elm disease in the 1950s, the once-widespread American elm whithered and died throughout its range across eastern North America. The American elm was widely planted throughout the United States and in the 1960's came under attack from Dutch Elm Disease. A., García, S., Díez, J. J., Martín, D. & García-Vallejo, M. C. 2004. Flowers of the hybrid elm cultivar 'Columella', U. americana, Dufferin St., Toronto, c. 1914. The leaves are alternate with a doubly toothed margin and unequal base. × hollandica), occurs naturally and was also commonly planted. In the American Revolution 'The Liberty Tree' was an American white elm in Boston, Massachusetts, in front of which, from 1765, the first resistance meetings were held against British attempts to tax the American colonists without democratic representation. Elm phloem necrosis (elm yellows)is a diseaseof elm trees that is spread by leafhoppersor by root grafts. [1] These trees flourished and spread over most of the Northern Hemisphere, inhabiting the temperate and tropical-montane regions of North America and Eurasia, presently ranging southward in the Middle East to Lebanon, and Israel,[2] and across the Equator in the Far East into Indonesia.[3]. Dutch elm disease was first discovered in the United States in Ohio in 1930. In a chance event linking elms and revolution, on the morning of his execution (30 January 1649), walking to the scaffold at the Palace of Whitehall, King Charles I turned to his guards and pointed out, with evident emotion, an elm near the entrance to Spring Gardens that had been planted by his brother in happier days. In Greek mythology the nymph Ptelea (Πτελέα, Elm) was one of the eight Hamadryads, nymphs of the forest and daughters of Oxylos and Hamadryas. However, any sighting of a healthy American elm tree throughout the state of Michigan is of interest to researchers. Methods include the winter transplanting of root-suckers; taking hardwood cuttings from vigorous one-year-old shoots in late winter,[90] taking root-cuttings in early spring; taking softwood cuttings in early summer;[91] grafting; ground and air layering; and micropropagation. Trees comprising the flowering plant genus Ulmus in the 1860s of Zeus that beareth the aegis year. 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