(p. 18). Research methods for substance abuse practitioners Thirdly, designing a coding sheet and developing a system of coding. You should enter ‘99’ in the relevant column if the question is not relevant. Cannon, A. A Quick Guide To Qualitative Coding. One portion of her study examined viewer comments posted online about other young people’s vlogs. Using “comment” or “Insert Endnote” function b. doi: 10.1177/0961000614532485. *��84iׂ)[��. The codes were inductively generated from the transcript data and “modified through an iterative process wherein coders engaged in multiple inde­pendent readings of these transcripts, meeting in pairs between each round of readings to add codes, delete codes, or clarify code definitions so as to accurately reflect adolescents’ descriptions” (p. 6). doi: 10.1177/1461444814538922. that occur between two or more persons; this implies the intention to apply effort. Teacher Should: incidents in which a participant relates a specific instance when they feel that a teacher SHOULD have done something (coded regardless of actual occurrence of the behavior), or example of (potential or actual) teacher behavior that the student relayed feelings (or an affirming value judgment) that such behavior SHOULD happen. The article is a masterful behind-the-scenes account of how a coder wrestles with data and exploratory methods. Brooks (2015) studied school principals in Southern Thailand working in tension-filled communities and utilized for her data analysis a “conceptual framework that conceived of trust as five interrelated constructs: benevolence, honesty, openness, reliability, and competence” (p. 232). Inattention: instances or occurrences in which the participant or the person about whom the participant is relating failed to adequately attend to another person’s actions or communicated thoughts or feelings; may refer to verbal, physical, emotive, or relational. Establishing validity and reliability in qualitative research can be less precise, though participant/member checks, peer evaluation (another researcher checks the researcher’s inferences based on the instrument (Denzin & Lincoln, 2005), and multiple methods (keyword: triangulation), are convincingly used. Brooks, M. C. (2015). Brooks, M. C. (2015). Teacher Does: incidents in which a participant relates a specific instance or example of behavior that was specifically done by the teacher. Codes are the smallest unit of text that conveys the same meaning (for the purpose of your research). Prediction and Interpretation: when a person demonstrates the ability to anticipate another person’s reaction (verbal, active, emotive, etc.) This method employs additional qualitative data to support or modify the researcher’s observations developed in an earlier project. (p. 18). This system employs six codes: Objective (OBJ), Conflict (CON), Tactics (TAC), Attitudes (ATT), Subtext (SUB), and Emotions (EMO). To facilitate on-line coding with the software program Tally (Bowyer 1991; Trotter 1993), components were added for the code mnemonic and a brief definition, as well as illustrative examples. Assign labels to your research questions: Anchor codes 2. Effortful Engagement: an instance in which one person actively and deliberately engages another on an interpersonal level. As I read and coded line by line, I felt that the coding scheme seemed simultaneously inductive and deductive, a combination that Denzin (1978, cited in Patton, 2002) might call abductive. She provides the coding labels in the left-hand column and sample data that support the codes in the right-hand field. Snelson (2015) investigated school-related vlogging on YouTube. Teachers’ views of information literacy practices in secondary education: A qualitative study in the Greek educational setting. There are two basic ways to create coding systems for content analysis. h�bbd```b``9 "[A$S9��~ f[�H1{0�,r�t���`6X �W0ylXVD,�D2/���]`�-`��`v�� ��u?�l��f��H6�9�`�H���������(H(6������ �$� Coding Qualitative Data Example. Coding & Data Analysis CFAR SPRC Qualitative Methods Workshop Series Michele Andrasik, Ph.D. Sarah Frey, MSW Meheret Endeshaw, MPH . consider when coding data for research purposes. The empirical research process must be open for unexpected information! … It seems that many of the respondents tried to draw students’ attention to both print and electronic material, but in most cases the Internet prevailed” (pp. Science and Tec… How, exactly, do they d… Once coding is complete, the collected data is examined to find patterns and draw conclusions in response to your research question. Data Analysis 2 . Entertainment/Lifestyle 1.7. Fletcher, A. C., & Blair, B. L. (2014). Approval Sheet Action Research. 5. 1846 0 obj <> endobj In the social sciences, coding is an analytical process in which data, in both quantitative form (such as questionnaires results) or qualitative form (such as interview transcripts) are categorized to facilitate analysis.. One purpose of coding is to transform the data into a form suitable for computer-aided analysis. You could devise a simpler one page data extraction form for a more simple literature review. For example, when SAS — perhaps the most commonly used statistical package for data coding — reads an Excel file and tries to obtain the variable names from the top row of the file, it expects a single string (no space, no bracket, no equal sign: nothing but a word! “Whatever you say, you’re the boss.” “I’ll do it to save my A, but that’s the only reason.” “I really like you, but I think this is a dumb idea.” 1. Outline for Today 1. Leniency/Willingness to Work Out Difficulties: the emotional and cognitive intention and commitment to resolving conflicts, differences of opinion, etc. Tips to set up a coding scheme (+free white paper with all 7 tips to set-up your coding scheme). Information about primary research included on research synthesis coding sheets can be classified into seven categories: 1) Report identification: in this part, the synthesist retrieves information concerning the background characteristics of the research report itself. ISCO is an example of a hierarchical category scheme. The resulting protocol, below, is presented as an appendix to the report (pp. Because these codes are not written on the questionnaire itself, it is best to make a sheet that reminds you of the codes given to each response for future reference. Open Coding, then Axial coding = relating of categories by using a general model of action (Strauss/Corbin 1990) ! Diagrams of codes and categories (or concepts, themes, etc.) Research Methods, Coding Sample The name of the University of Plymouth and its logos are unregistered trade marks of the CC resources. 7–8). (2012). Data Extraction/Coding/Study characteristics/Results; Reporting the quality/risk of bias; Manage citations using RefWorks ; GW Box file storage for PDF's; Data Extraction: PRISMA Item 10 The next step is for the researchers to read the full text of each article identified for inclusion in the review and extract the pertinent data using a standardized data extraction/coding form. Axial coding is a qualitative research technique that involves relating data together in order to reveal codes, categories, and subcategories ground within participants’ voices within one’s collected data. Unspecified Support: the act of providing or sharing emotional assistance, reassurance or bolstering, or other form of support that do not meet the definitional criteria of another specific support process. Specifically, each coding sheet should include the following information: APA citation (using correct form, see example below) Mongeau, P. A., Serewicz, M. C. M., & Therrien, L. F. (2004). Manually coding large volumes of text is extremely time-consuming, and it can be difficult to automate effectively. 1. endstream endobj startxref Elaborative coding builds on a previous study’s codes, categories, and themes while a current and related study is underway. Boundaries: participant expresses that someone is expected to act or speak in some way based on rank, role, or relationship. We must proceed from the existing theoretical knowledge; only this way we can contribute to it! Their Descriptive and Structural Coding approaches were applied to focus group data, and the co-authors provide a meticulous account of their procedures and how they resolved co-occurrence coding dilemmas. The categories were identified around different meanings of nursing professional dignity in community and hospital settings. Code relevant statements and putting the codes under their respective Anchor codes a. If a student does what the teacher in a TV show says, is it an example of respect for authority? This system employs six codes: Objective (OBJ), Conflict (CON), Tactics (TAC), Attitudes (ATT), Subtext (SUB), and Emotions (EMO). In addition, each coded line is assigned a secondary code in order to reveal the perspectives, motives, and conflicts of the participant. A disadvantage lies in the necessity to adapt your research intentions in line with the concept of the coding scheme. Professional dignity in nursing in clinical and community workplaces. An interview guide was also formulated for the conduct of the interview with the local dailies selected editorial board members. Stievano, A., De Marinis, M. G., Russo, M. T., Rocco, G., & Alvaro, R. (2012). Example. There are additional notes of clarification at the end of the coding sheet. are particularly useful when processes of human action are involved, or the complexity of the analysis necessitates graphic representation, such as networks, to support the explanatory narrative. Coding Sheets COM 401 During the semester, you will complete four Coding Sheets based on four research articles. It usually involves looking at exported data on an Excel sheet, adding columns for coding, and reading through the 0pen-ends and assigning each open-end with a category code. the textual units (codes) were sorted out, summed up and categorized. Below is the abbreviated codebook from the co-authors’ study (pp. Coding Sheets COM 401 During the semester, you will complete four Coding Sheets based on four research articles. Measurement and Evaluation 2. The numbers below in bold refer to the columns on the enclosed sample Excel sheet. Thus each category has its own symbolic label, or code. Teacher Should Not: incidents in which a participant relates a specific instance when they feel that a teacher SHOULD NOT have done something (coded regardless of actual occurrence of the behavior), or example of (potential or actual) teacher behavior that the student relayed feelings (or a negative value judgment) that such behavior SHOULD NOT happen. Developing a coding scheme means developing a classification system or categories into which each sampled unit can be placed. This section of the website focuses on human coding, in which human coders use a codebook to guide the systematic examination of message content. Here is an example: Before discussing codes or coding, let me give you the most comprehensive definition of “code” by Saldaña (2009). At Focus Forward Coding, we take it a step further than most survey coding companies, providing superior customer service along with the verbatim analysis. Here is an example: The process seems very simple, but there are … Examples: limit, extent, goal, social norms! We begin with an overview of coding, and then the various aspects of coding are discussed. What else might be necessary? There are times when a detailed explanation of a coding procedure is necessary to clarify the analytic approach or to describe problematic issues. This study aimed to identify the most frequent news category and rhetoric of The New York Times, The Boston Globe, and The Washington Post’sbanner stories and assess whether they aligned to readers’ news preference. Process Coding: this method uses gerunds ("-ing" words) only to describe and display actions throughout the document. A simple half-page table with a list of codes and their categories illustrates a portion of the analytic journey. The five constructs served as a priori codes that helped formulate more detailed codes and thus categories and thence into themes. Concerns about teen’s physical, emotional, or social well-being (e.g., needs sleep. The Experience Of Employed Filipinos Earning 10 000 Php Usd 250. Here I have described the contents of the answers in red pen, then added some notes in a different colour, often these notes are referred to as memos.I think it is important to keep these distinct And most of the clerical person help me. Single coding and multi-coding Interview Data (Identifying & Coding Themes) Open coding. Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter S Chapter 6 Chapter 7. Content analysis requires that all sampled units be placed in a category. How To Write An Article Critique Example Apa At Kingessays C . The table below (p. 345) illustrates one example of a category, its subcategories, and their related “codes” – in this case, extended participant quotes. Included here are excerpts from seven Sage Publications journal articles that illustrate coding at work. Coding is necessary to reduce the data to a manageable mass, but any piece of text can be coded in many different ways. We begin with an overview of coding, and then the various aspects of coding are discussed. “The number and types of sources students consulted depended on the assignment they had to hand in and the directions they received from their teachers. Coding examples from SAGE journals providing actual examples of coding at work, giving you insight into coding procedures. As such, we were able to explore the driving question in this coding process, “Did the interaction bridge the two people to bring them closer together, or did it separate them or create a barrier between closeness developing?” Finally, by examining the thematic patterns identified, we gained a full understanding of the processes that the participants related to us. A brief description of the journey from beginning to end, especially if it can be shown on just one page, helps readers see the big picture. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science. Codes can be a … McHugh, Horner, Colditz, and Wallace (2013) explored “adolescents’ perceptions of the bridges that foster and the barriers that inhibit supportive relationships with teachers, and the boundary expectations that function as both” (p. 9). Coding as a market research method. The computer file of results has only the coded data, not the original verbatim answer. Only then can you choose the research methodology, respectively the coding … How does coding in qualitative research helps? Proficiency with cell phones compared with parents, 2. Stereotype: when a person is presumed to behave, believe, think, or experience some emotion simply because of some external categorization; typified by an intensified,  overgeneralized, and frequent reinterpretation of a perceived attribute to an extreme degree and applied regardless of contrary fact/observations. How to conduct content analysis. “Of the 3457 comments, 53% were coded as positive, 12% were coded as negative, 29% were coded as neutral, and 6% were coded as mixed” (p. 335). Readers may wish to have more detailed information about a study’s coding procedures or its protocol. Companionship: the desire to share time, physical space, or communication with another person, typically in a friendly or emotionally positive manner. What does Qualitative Data look like? The articles and the coding sheets should help you write your Literature Review. (p. 345), limited way (e.g., has texting function but does not text, has a Face­book, behaviors can result in loss of cell phone privileges, needs uninterrupted dinners, a trust issue, academic concerns), To code the data, I reread the transcript of the interview and used Saldaña’s (2009) dramaturgical coding, in which lines are coded, using a combination of. A sample qualitative coding sheet has been provided as a box item which would be very helpful to students. Coding Data All research requires several systematic steps. Using multiple coding methods depending on the type of research question(s) 3. an overview of recent empirical research done by practical theologians and postgraduate students at the NWU. Market research coding is the process of organizing and assigning numeric codes to responses of open-ended questions and other-specify questions. In qualitative research, coding is “how you define what the data you are analysing are about” (Gibbs, 2007). What is survey coding in market research? Subsequently, open codes with similar content were arranged in sub-categories and then categorized. Date (xx/xx/15) 4. Vlogging about school on YouTube: An exploratory study. Theoretical coding progresses towards discovering the central or core category that identifies the primary theme of the research. Coding is a process of identifying a passage in the text or other data items (photograph, image), searching and identifying concepts and finding relations between them. You have to give something like a, McHugh, Horner, Colditz, and Wallace (2013) explored “adolescents’ perceptions of the. Two key issues arose: (a) Some lines did not conform to a single code, and (b) the processing of coding for emotions and subtext – which often required my remembering Edem’s vocal expression or. Research outline Auerbach & Silverstein (2003, p.44) recommend that you keep a copy of your research concern, theoretical framework, central research question, goals of the study, and other major issues on one page in front of you to keep you focused and allay your anxieties because the page focuses your coding decisions. To address the first issue of overlapping code, I often coded one sentence with several codes, as in the case below. Making the data perform: An ethnodramatic analysis. That is, I could name the codes as I felt appropriate, but I also had to deductively decide how these codes fit into predetermined secondary codes (e.g., emotion, subtext, etc.). Problem Solving: request and/or receipt of assistance from one person by another in dealing with a real or hypothetical problem, conflict, tumultuous situation, or issue; primarily verbal in nature, and tends to be focused on social situations or circumstances. Before discussing codes or coding, let me give you the most comprehensive definition of “code” by Saldaña (2009). Tips & Tools #18: Coding Qualitative Data This tip sheet provides an overview of the process of coding qualitative data, which is an important part of developing and refining interpretations in your interview, focus group or observational data. The JISC logo and the logo of the Higher Education Academy are licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution -non-commercial-No Derivative Works 2.0 UK England & Wales’s license. You may also see student questionnaire examples Research Survey Example They each provide an example of how researchers can document their analytic journeys for the benefit of readers. CODE FRAMES One of the first steps of coding is creating a “key” or code frame — in other words, the groups we want to categorise the responses in. Coding sheets outline key aspects of a research study. Coding in qualitative research leads to a better understanding of the phenomenon, developing constructs, categories and themes and in developing the final theory. Locaria > Insights > Blog > Market Research > Coding as a market research method. Codes are the smallest unit of text that conveys the same meaning (for the purpose of your research). In other words, you are breaking down the data into first level concepts, or master headings, and second-level categories, or subheadings. You have to give something like a money [bribe]. B., & Wallace, T. L. (2013). Stievano, De Marinis, Russo, Rocco, and Alvaro (2012) analyzed nurses’ professional dignity. Step 1: Read through your data and define your categories. Coding examples 3 Coding for patterns 5 Coding filters 6 Coding as a heuristic 7 Codifying and Categorizing 8 ... teach coding in my own qualitative research methods course. Fletcher and Blair (2014) conducted individual interviews with adolescents about their parents’ rules for cell phone and social media use. Protection: the act of buffering or guarding another person; may be verbal (e.g. The objective is to attempt to give the participants a voice in the research. As publishing space permits, authors may wish to include an abbreviated codebook as an appendix to their reports. In addition, each coded line is assigned a secondary code in order to reveal the perspectives, motives, and conflicts of the participant. And most of the clerical person help me. Meaning of Coding Assigning labels to Data 1. And I can say that some advisor helped me. The categories were identified around different meanings of nursing professional dignity, in community and hospital settings. Media Organisation 3. example that falls into a certain coding category, we assign an abstract symbol to represent any case in that category. the two people to bring them closer together, between closeness developing?” Finally, by, examining the thematic patterns identified, we gained a full understanding of the, processes that the participants related to us. One, often called a deductive approach, uses existing literature and theory to create a codebook prior to the start of coding. Subscribe to the blog - Get updated monthly. A coding patterncan be characterised by: 1. similarity (things happen the same way) 2. difference (they happen in predictably different ways) 3. frequency (they happen often or seldom) 4. sequence (they happen in a certain order) 5. correspondence (they happen in relation to other activities or events) 6. causation (one appears to cause another) A theme is an outcome of coding Questions to consider when you are coding: 1. what are people doing? School principals in Southern Thailand: Exploring trust with community leaders during conflict. Even a simple listing or hierarchical/organizational outline of codes can provide a sense of the overall analytic scheme and a holistic review of results. Education 1.5. %PDF-1.6 %���� Coding examples from SAGE journals providing actual examples of coding at work, giving you insight into coding procedures. Conflict Resolution: the act between two or more people to work collaboratively on resolving a point of disagreement, conflict, misunderstanding, etc. So 7b, 8d and 8e, and 11b-g for example will be mostly 99. (Understanding) Constraints: temporal, monetary, physical, familial/relational, etc. The diagram also serves as a general outline for the discussion of each bin, supported with participant quotes or vignettes. Some examples of first cycle coding methods include: In Vivo Coding: codes terms and phrases used by the participants themselves. Analysis Why Is … New Media & Society. Read the full articles for more details on their coding procedures. It usually involves looking at exported data on an Excel sheet, adding columns for coding, and reading through the 0pen-ends and assigning each open-end with a category code. Example of a coding process Codes Categories Themes Theory Think about Qualitative Analysis “It is about reducing data without losing its meaning” ~Philip Adu Qualitative findings Represent the data Address the research question(s) 3. Country 2. © 2020 SAGE Publications SAGE Publications India Pvt. The same applies with content analysis. The Coding Manual for Qualitative Researchers, upgrade your version of Internet Explorer, Teen perceives self and parent approximately equal, Teen demonstrates more knowledge or use than parent, Parent demonstrates more knowledge or use than teen, Expression of teen’s own confusion/difficulties, Expression of parent’s confusion/difficulties, Discussion of use of specific functions or usage patterns, Parent has access to technologies but does not use them or uses them in a, Who phone can be used to communicate with, Number of minutes or texts that can be used, Rules regarding what adolescents have to do to have cell phone privileges or what, Cell phones are a privilege or parents have the right to control their use. Sports 1.6. This is one example of a form, illustrating the thoroughness of the Cochrane research methodology. Another issue is the stage at which the coding is done. Saldaña borrows this coding system from Bogdan and Biklen’s strategy codes. The articles and the coding sheets should help you write your Literature Review. This label may be an abbreviation, a number, a letter, a color, a geometric shape, or anything else that is convenient for the process of sum-marizing, analyzing, storing, or retrieving the information. These may be used as a guide for future research, however, most researchers will find that it is necessary to tailor every codebook to each specific research study. What type of news category is the most frequent among American dailies’ banner stories? Return to noldus.com Contact information; Behavioral Research Blog By Noldus Information Technology. For example, for item 3 on the questionnaire given above (type of school attended), Government would be coded as 1, NGO Private coded as 2, Religious Private coded as 3, and Other Private coded as 4. In conclusion, I propose a model for coding and data analysis Strengths And Limitations Of Quantitative Research Curriculum And. It’s not like my country. Carelessness: instances or occurrences in which the participant or the person about whom the participant is relating failed to adequately take into consideration another person’s needs, desires or likes/dislikes; may refer to verbal, physical, engagement, emotive, or relational. Media Organisation 3. Specifically, this sought to answer the following questions: 1. Codes can be a … What are they trying to accomplish? Coding According to Theory . I also present different approaches to data analysis in qualitative research. McHugh, R. M., Horner, C. G., Colditz, J. It was very interesting. Connecting: participant refers to or describes the process by which someone transitions into “being known” by the participant, or by which the participant is “known” by them; the act of connecting with another person, or growing closer. W3Schools: Reference guides for HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. From there you can subtotal the codes and divide them by your pool to assign representative percentages. Politics 1.8. Ltd. UK Data Archive Study Number 6592 - National Awareness and Early Diagnosis Initiative: Cancer Awareness Measures, Humber and Yorkshire Coast Cancer Network, 2010: Special Licence Access. Remember that each data point can be included in … Type of rule parents have for cell phone use. Saldaña borrows this coding system from Bogdan and Biklen’s strategy codes. I provide students with an array of readings about the process from 111ultiple sources because I have yet to find that single satisfactory book (to me) that focuses exclusively on the topic. All main categories were then compared and two, main themes on professional dignity emerged. The numbers below in bold refer to the columns on the enclosed sample Excel sheet. All reproductions must comply with the terms of … What is survey coding in market research? For this example, we’ll use “customer service,” “product quality,” and “price.” Step 2: Sort a sample of the data into the above categories. Research methods for substance abuse practitioners Thirdly, designing a coding sheet and developing a system of coding. They explain that Structural Coding, in particular, deliberately labeled the perceived effect of the interaction on the closeness of the, interpersonal relationship. It’s not like my country. Togia, A., Korobili, S., Malliari, A., & Nitsos, I. a short word or phrase describing the meaning and context of the whole sentence Urban Education 48(1), 9–43. When possible, researchers should describe or illustrate their process of transforming codes into their consequent analytic products (e.g., major themes/concepts, key assertion, theory). Artifacts 4. that inhibit supportive relationships with teachers, and the boundary expectations that function as both” (p. 9). Thus, you should choose articles for your Coding Sheets that relate to the research question or theory you will be writing about later in the semester. Example research question for content analysis. A Quick Guide To Qualitative Coding. It was very interesting. You should enter ‘99’ in the relevant column if the question is not relevant. h�b```��lS@(������I��������a�W��GlKz��#!�����g�����%dyvȈ��sL�-I��3\���a���%m����r��~��R���Y*M+��t{z-N.����"�e��îγ��k��F�Z� ��'p������Q?t�=^. From there you can subtotal the codes and divide them by your pool to assign representative percentages. Friday August 10, 2018 - Posted by: Annabella Ahola. Readers can benefit from seeing how codes become organized under broader categories. Below we’ll walk through an example of coding qualitative data, utilizing the steps and tips detailed above. To ensure full site functionality, please use an alternative web browser or upgrade your version of Internet Explorer. The coding scheme or ethogram determines what data you collect and is, thus, an essential part of your behavioral study. Below is the beginning of that confessional tale (p. 585): To code the data, I reread the transcript of the interview and used Saldaña’s (2009) dramaturgical coding, in which lines are coded, using a combination of in vivo and gerund codes. ATLAS.ti software was used to analyze the interview data and create several diagrams for the co-authors’ published report. 35–8), a rare form of appendix in journal articles. Interview transcripts 2. This is totally forbidden! The following table lists some online resources, references, and tutorials to help you continue practicing all three languages. Thus, the final version of the analysis codebook contained five parts: the code mnemonic, a brief definition, a full definition of inclusion criteria, a full This coding system from Bogdan and Biklen ’ s use of Magnitude coding is research coding sheet example how you what... Sample qualitative coding sheet YouTube: an attempt to share in or another! 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This coding system from Bogdan and Biklen research coding sheet example s coding procedures or its protocol easily.The excellence of the coding 321–39... They d… the coding sheets COM 401 during the semester, you will four. Perceptions of student-teacher relationships to data analysis CFAR SPRC qualitative methods Workshop Series Michele Andrasik, Ph.D. Sarah,... Among American dailies ’ banner stories eventual development of the coding scheme or ethogram determines what data you are a... Tones, or code trade marks of the Cochrane research methodology, respectively the coding is process! Chapter s Chapter 6 Chapter 7: participant expresses that someone is expected to act or speak in way... Page data extraction form for a more simple Literature Review, MSW Meheret Endeshaw,.. In community and hospital settings assign labels to your research questions:.! ’ views of research coding sheet example literacy practices in secondary education: a qualitative study in the research rests in part! A holistic Review of results has only the coded data, not the original verbatim.... Theologians and postgraduate students at the end of the Cochrane research methodology, respectively coding! First cycle coding methods include: in Vivo coding: codes terms and phrases used by the participants a in! Of open-ended questions are usually coded before the data entry stage Series Michele Andrasik, Ph.D. Sarah Frey, Meheret.

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