[43] Fighting continued sporadically between Sweden and Poland until the Truce of Altmark in 1629. More-detailed discussion in Daina Stukuls Eglitis, "Baltic Thaw, Aegean freeze", The Economist, 27 February 2010, p59, Declaration on the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia, a crusade against pagans in Northern Europe, Learn how and when to remove this template message, German occupation of Latvia during World War II, Latvian anti-Nazi resistance movement 1941–45, Occupation of Latvia by Soviet Union 1944–1945, On the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia, historical and cultural regions in Latvia, Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics, Body of European Regulators for Electronic Communications, Presidency of the Council of the European Union, Inčukalns underground gas storage facility, Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, "Pastāvīgo iedzīvotāju etniskais sastāvs reģionos un republikas pilsētās gada sākumā", "Tieslietu ministrijā iesniegtie reliģisko organizāciju pārskati par darbību 2011. gadā", Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, https://www.csb.gov.lv/en/statistics/statistics-by-theme/population/number-and-change/key-indicator/population-number-its-changes-and-density, "Population Census 2011 – Key Indicators", "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey", "The Constitution of the Republic of Latvia, Chapter 1 (Article 4)", "Official Language Law, Section 3 (Article 1)", "Official Language Law, Sections 4, 5 and 18 (Article 4)", "Official Language Law, Section 3 (Articles 3 and 4)", "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings", https://op.europa.eu/en/web/eu-vocabularies/th-concept/-/resource/eurovoc/911?uri=http://eurovoc.europa.eu/911, https://www.kyivpost.com/world/un-classifies-latvia-lithuania-estonia-northern-europe.html, "UPHEAVAL IN THE EAST; Soviet Congress Condemns '39 Pact That Led to Annexation of Baltics", "Etniskais sastāvs un mazākumtautību kultūras identitātes veicināšana", "IRG110. [citation needed] The Popular Front of Latvia advocated that all permanent residents be eligible for Latvian citizenship, helping to sway many ethnic Russians to vote for independence. [210], Latvian cuisine typically consists of agricultural products, with meat featuring in most main meal dishes. '[75], In the second half of the 1980s, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev started to introduce political and economic reforms in the Soviet Union that were called glasnost and perestroika. In January 1991, Soviet political and military forces tried unsuccessfully to overthrow the Republic of Latvia authorities by occupying the central publishing house in Riga and establishing a Committee of National Salvation to usurp governmental functions. Selonia, a part of Zemgale, is sometimes considered culturally distinct region, but it is not part of any formal division. Sauna. Its national insect is the two-spot ladybird (Adalia bipunctata, Latvian: divpunktu mārīte). [172] Free port of Ventspils is one of the busiest ports in the Baltic states. According to the Russian Empire Census of 1897, Latvians formed 68.3% of the total population of 1.93 million; Russians accounted for 12%, Jews for 7.4%, Germans for 6.2%, and Poles for 3.4%. [61] The Soviet Union incorporated Latvia on 5 August 1940, as The Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic. [47] Half the residents of Riga were killed by plague in 1710–1711. The native dialect remained distinct, although it acquired many Polish and Russian loanwords. BK Ventspils, which participates in EuroChallenge, is the second strongest basketball club in Latvia, previously winning LBL eight times and BBL in 2013. It was a member of the League of Nations (1921–1946). Eager to join Western economic institutions like the World Trade Organization, OECD, and the European Union, Latvia signed a Europe Agreement with the EU in 1995—with a 4-year transition period. [76][77], In 1989, the Supreme Soviet of the USSR adopted a resolution on the Occupation of the Baltic states, in which it declared the occupation "not in accordance with law", and not the "will of the Soviet people". Latvijas vēstures atlants, Jānis Turlajs, page 12, Karšu izdevniecība Jāņa sēta, H. Strods, "'Dobrye Shvedskie Vremena' v Istoriografii Latvii (Konets XVIII V. – 70-E Gg. The best time to visit Latvia is from may until september, when you will have a soft or pleasant temperature and limited rainfall.The highest average temperature in Latvia is 23°C in july and the lowest is -2°C in january. [58] The racially approved being resettled mainly in Poland, being given land and businesses in exchange for the money they had received from the sale of their previous assets.[56]:46. [208], During July 2014, Riga hosted the 8th World Choir Games as it played host to over 27,000 choristers representing over 450 choirs and over 70 countries. They promoted Latvian culture and encouraged Latvians to take part in cultural activities. The summer climate in Latvia is warm with an average temperature of 17°C, the peak occasionally going as high as 30°C. Latvian is the official language. [citation needed], During these two centuries Latvia experienced economic and construction boom – ports were expanded (Riga became the largest port in the Russian Empire), railways built; new factories, banks, and a University were established; many residential, public (theatres and museums), and school buildings were erected; new parks formed; and so on. Jul Latvia and the United States have signed treaties on investment, trade, and intellectual property protection and avoidance of double taxation.[162][163]. However, most indigenous Latvians did not participate in this particular cultural life. [112] Nordic-Baltic Eight (NB-8) is the joint co-operation of the governments of Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, and Sweden. Since then, it has been amended and is still in effect in Latvia today. [87], Latvia has four pronounced seasons of near-equal length. The Latvian SSR, along with the other Baltic Republics was allowed greater autonomy, and in 1988, the old pre-war Flag of Latvia flew again, replacing the Soviet Latvian flag as the official flag in 1990. The total length of its maritime boundary is 498 km (309 mi), which is shared with Estonia, Sweden and Lithuania. They have no citizenship of any country, and cannot vote in Latvia. [206] Folk songs and classical choir songs are sung, with emphasis on a cappella singing, though modern popular songs have recently been incorporated into the repertoire as well. [150], Latvian civilian experts have contributed to EU civilian missions: border assistance mission to Moldova and Ukraine (2005–2009), rule of law missions in Iraq (2006 and 2007) and Kosovo (since 2008), police mission in Afghanistan (since 2007) and monitoring mission in Georgia (since 2008). There are normally 1 hour of bright sunshine each day in Riga, Latvia in December - that's 12% of daylight hours. The average climate figure for Latvia is an 6,9. The length of Latvia's Baltic coastline is 494 km (307 mi). Latvian non-citizens and the citizenship debates", "Latvia: Investigate Attacks on Gay Activists", "Participation in International operations", "US-led coalition forces operation in OIF (Operation Iraqi Freedom)", "Dombrovskis and US Ambassador Garber visit Riga Airport to inspect cargo plane to Afghanistan", "One year on: ISAF's trans-European supply routes are a success", "NATO opens new communication lines to Afghanistan", "Nordic Military Alliance With Latvia in Afghanistan", "V.Dombrovskis: Latvia sees the opportunity to strengthen NATO's strategic communication capability", "Baltic Defence Ministers announced new defence cooperation initiatives", "Nordic Countries Invite Baltics to Join Defence Co-operation Framework", "Joint Baltic Military Staff to Be Established", "Turpina pieaugt iedzīvotāju atbalsts eiro ieviešanai", "Rimsevics: Failing to bail out Parex banka would result in closing down of four banks in Latvia", "Latvian GDP Shrank 18% in First Quarter, EU's Biggest Fall –", "Agreement between the United States of America and the Republic of Latvia on Trade Relations and Intellectual Property Rights Protection", "Statistical Office of the European Commission (Eurostat), Monthly Bulletin: Table in chapter 09, section 01", "Eurostat – Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table", "UPDATE 2-IMF hails Latvia effort but sees risks ahead", "IMF Executive Board Concludes First Post-Program Monitoring Discussions with the Republic of Latvia, July 16, 2012", "Satiksmes ceļu garums gada beigās (kilometros)", "Reģistrēto automobiļu skaits ceturkšņa beigās", "The Outlook of Latvian Potential Underground Gas Storages and Prospects of Utilization of this Potential for Securing of Reliable Gas Supply to Europe", "TSG11-06. [29] It performs favorably in measurements of civil liberties, press freedom, internet freedom, democratic governance, living standards, and peacefulness. [144] Latvia acts as the lead nation in the coordination of the Northern Distribution Network for transportation of non-lethal ISAF cargo by air and rail to Afghanistan. [78], In spite of this, 73% of all Latvian residents confirmed their strong support for independence on 3 March 1991, in a non-binding advisory referendum. According to statistics in late 2013, 45% of the population supported the introduction of the euro, while 52% opposed it. Unique geological conditions at Inčukalns and other locations in Latvia are particularly suitable for underground gas storage.[178]. [120] The Enhanced Partnership in Northern Europe or e-Pine is the U.S. Department of State diplomatic framework for co-operation with the Nordic-Baltic countries. Based on weather reports collected during 1985–2015. Severe spells of winter weather with cold winds, extreme temperatures of around −30 °C (−22 °F) and heavy snowfalls are common. [68] This operation had the desired effect of reducing the anti Soviet partisan activity. Latvia has a total area of 64,559 km2 (24,926 sq mi) of which 62,157 km2 (23,999 sq mi) land, 18,159 km2 (7,011 sq mi) agricultural land,[83] 34,964 km2 (13,500 sq mi) forest land[84] and 2,402 km2 (927 sq mi) inland water. The coldest months in Riga are January and February which have an average daily temperature of -6°C and see the mercury often falling below a blistering -25°C! Summers have average temperatures of around 19 °C (66 °F), with extremes of 35 °C (95 °F). Forecast - Riga. The resulting people's assembly immediately requested admission into the USSR, which the Soviet Union granted. [164], Latvia's unemployment rate rose sharply in this period from a low of 5.4% in November 2007 to over 22%. July is the hottest month in Riga with an average temperature of 17°C (63°F) and the coldest is February at -4.5°C (24°F) with the most daily sunshine hours at 12 in June. Demands for self-determination were initially confined to autonomy, until a power vacuum was created by the Russian Revolution in 1917, followed by the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk between Russia and Germany in March 1918, then the Allied armistice with Germany on 11 November 1918. [85], Most of Latvia's territory is less than 100 m (330 ft) above sea level. [21] It ended with the Declaration on the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia on 4 May 1990 and restoring de facto independence on 21 August 1991. Approximately 72% of Latvian citizens are Latvian, while 20% are Russian; less than 1% of non-citizens are Latvian, while 71% are Russian. Get your weekly fix of holiday inspiration from leading travel writers. Instead, citizenship was granted to persons who had been citizens of Latvia at the day of loss of independence at 1940 as well as their descendants. [123], According to the reports by Freedom House and the US Department of State, human rights in Latvia are generally respected by the government:[124][125] Latvia is ranked above-average among the world's sovereign states in democracy,[126] press freedom,[127] privacy[128] and human development. [198], The Latvian healthcare system is a universal programme, largely funded through government taxation. The unemployment rate has receded from its peak of more than 20 percent in 2010 to around 9.3 percent in 2014. Jun Paul Krugman, the Nobel Laureate in economics for 2008, wrote in his New York Times Op-Ed column on 15 December 2008: The most acute problems are on Europe's periphery, where many smaller economies are experiencing crises strongly reminiscent of past crises in Latin America and Asia: Latvia is the new Argentina[167]. Albeit having experienced a difficult transition to a liberal economy and its re-orientation toward Western Europe, Latvia is one of the fastest growing economies in the European Union. Its largest lake, Lubāns, has an area of 80.7 km2 (31.2 sq mi), its deepest lake, Drīdzis, is 65.1 m (214 ft) deep. Approximately 30,000 performers altogether participate in the event. On 1 January 2014, the Euro became the country's currency, superseding the Lats. The climate is rather cold in this city in december. After centuries of Swedish, Polish-Lithuanian and Russian rule, a rule mainly executed by the Baltic German aristocracy, the Republic of Latvia was established on 18 November 1918 when it broke away from the Russian Empire and declared independence in the aftermath of World War I. [57] Most of those who remained left for Germany in summer 1940, when a second resettlement scheme was agreed. Latvia is a member of the United Nations, European Union, Council of Europe, NATO, OECD, OSCE, IMF, and WTO. May Mar [87][88][89], Coastal regions, especially the western coast of the Courland Peninsula, possess a more maritime climate with cooler summers and milder winters, while eastern parts exhibit a more continental climate with warmer summers and harsher winters. This month should be avoided if you are not a big fan of rain. [55] In the north, Latvia, Finland and Estonia were assigned to the Soviet sphere. HOLIDAY WEATHER Riga Riga weather is generally cool and cloudy for most of the year, while winters (December to March) are cold and snowy. This program allows investors to get Latvia residence permit by investing at least €250,000 in property or in an enterprise with at least 50 employees and an annual turnover of at least €10M. Riga, Latvia: Annual Weather Averages. Apr CCPR/CO/79/LVA, 1 December 2003, "A new kind of citizenship accepted by EU? [106] The most senior civil servants are the thirteen Secretaries of State. Latvian cuisine has been influenced by the neighbouring countries. Latvia has established diplomatic relations with 158 countries. The total fertility rate (TFR) in 2018 was estimated at 1.61 children born/woman, which is lower than the replacement rate of 2.1. Metric (°C / mm)  |  Imperial (°F / inches), Get your weekly fix of holiday inspiration from some of the world's best travel writers plus save on your next trip with the latest exclusive offers. Lutheranism was more prominent before the Soviet occupation, when it was a majority religion of ~60% due to strong historical links with the Nordic countries and to the influence of the Hansa in particular and Germany in general. Latvia has ratified the international Washington, Bern, and Ramsare conventions. Latvia is part of the Schengen Area and joined the Eurozone on 1 January 2014. There are plenty of concerts and cultural events going on during the winter (see Music Festivals in Latvia), and it's always fun to go gallery hopping and shopping in the boutiques of Riga. Over the course of the year, the temperature typically varies from 21°F to 74°F and is rarely below 2°F or above 83°F . The Köppen-Geiger climate classification is Dfb. Latvia has had many famous hockey stars like Helmuts Balderis, Artūrs Irbe, Kārlis Skrastiņš and Sandis Ozoliņš and more recently Zemgus Girgensons, whom the Latvian people have strongly supported in international and NHL play, expressed through the dedication of using the NHL's All Star Voting to bring Zemgus to number one in voting. [93], Agricultural areas account for 1,815,900 ha (4,487,000 acres) or 29% of the total land area. [citation needed] The Latgale region remained part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as Inflanty Voivodeship until 1772, when it was incorporated into Russia. [citation needed], A freely elected Constituent assembly convened on 1 May 1920, and adopted a liberal constitution, the Satversme, in February 1922. On 4 May 1990, the Supreme Council adopted the Declaration on the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia, and the Latvian SSR was renamed Republic of Latvia. Precipitation: 1.27". [citation needed] In practice, however, the emancipation was actually advantageous to the landowners and nobility,[citation needed] as it dispossessed peasants of their land without compensation, forcing them to return to work at the estates "of their own free will". This led to the development of the Amber Road. [41] Though the duchy was a vassal state to Poland, it retained a considerable degree of autonomy and experienced a golden age in the 16th century. Latvia's defence concept is based upon the Swedish-Finnish model of a rapid response force composed of a mobilisation base and a small group of career professionals. Until World War II, Latvia also had significant minorities of ethnic Germans and Jews. [157], Since the year 2000, Latvia has had one of the highest (GDP) growth rates in Europe. [201][202][203], Traditional Latvian folklore, especially the dance of the folk songs, dates back well over a thousand years. The winter in Latvia usually lasts from mid-December to the beginning of March. [154] In November 2012, the three countries agreed to create a joint military staff in 2013. Latvia hosts one European Union institution, the Body of European Regulators for Electronic Communications (BEREC). [citation needed], Several species of flora and fauna are considered national symbols. [179] The life expectancy in 2013 was estimated at 73.19 years (68.13 years male, 78.53 years female). In the winter season the temperature in the daytime varies between –1C to - 5C. Despite foreign rule from the 13th to 20th centuries, the Latvian nation maintained its identity throughout the generations via the language and musical traditions. [194] Other important universities, which were established on the base of State University of Latvia, include the Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies (established in 1939 on the basis of the Faculty of Agriculture) and Riga Stradiņš University (established in 1950 on the basis of the Faculty of Medicine). Both nowadays cover a variety of different fields. In formal divisions, Riga region, which includes the capital and parts of other regions that have a strong relationship with the capital, is also often included in regional divisions; e.g., there are five planning regions of Latvia (Latvian: plānošanas reģioni), which were created in 2009 to promote balanced development of all regions. 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Latvia include 159 species popular sport in Latvia with current travel advice statistics... November 2012, 45.0 % of daylight hours crude oil and oil products the 13th,...

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